Llanelli, Wales. U.K.  |   charles@tritoncleantech.com   |   07412 580299

Treatment Range

 

Examples of the contaminants eliminated

ORGANIC MATTER

The reduction in DQO and DBO5 matter is brought about by the different effects of the process:

  • Flocculation of organic matter

  • Oxidation of organic matter

  • Breaking of large molecules

  • Indirect oxidation as a result of the generation of strong chemical oxidants

 

OILS AND FATS

The electrochemical reduction process results in the breaking up and separation of the oils and fats present in the water, regardless of whether or not they are already emulsified. These oils and fats are separated by means of flotation through the generation of micro-bubbles.

 

HEAVY METALS

Heavy metals are removed by an oxidoreduction process that produces insoluble metallic hydroxides that become trapped in the sludge.

 

SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND COLLOIDS

The electrochemical process results in a stable state of solid particles that are less colloidal or emulsified (or soluble) than at the state of equilibrium. When this occurs, the contaminants form hydrophobic components in the form of larger flocs that can be removed easily by means of flotation or decantation as required.

ECO-TOXICITY

The removal of toxic organic components and/or heavy metals eliminates the ecotoxicity of the water, allowing it to be disposed of or reused. In some cases, this method can be used as a preparatory step prior to biological treatment.

ELIMINATION OF WATER HARDNESS

The removal of calcium and magnesium cations and salts such as sulphate, carbonate, and phosphate salts by means of electrochemical precipitation enables a reduction in the hardness of the treated water and prevents the formation of incrustations and bio-films in pipes and installations. This is extremely useful as a preparatory step prior to inverse osmosis processes (to lengthen the life of membranes) and for maintaining refrigeration water systems (since it prevents colonisation and contamination by legionella bacteria).

 

REMOVAL AND DISINFECTION OF BACTERIA, VIRUSES, AND PARASITES

The electric discharge, temperature, and generation of oxidants produce a highly germicidal effect that can ensure that all effluent treated by means of electrocoagulation is complete free from pathogens.

This benefit of electrocoagulation is of interest in the following fields:

  • Legionella disinfection

  • Purine hygienization

  • Making wastewater or drinking water drinkable.

 

Reactions Within The Electrocoagulation Reactor

Within the electrocoagulation reactor, several distinct electrochemical reactions are

produced independently. These are:

  • Seeding, resulting from the anode reduction of metal ions that become new centres for larger, stable, insoluble complexes that precipitate as complex metal ions.

  • Emulsion Breaking, resulting from the oxygen and hydrogen ions that bond into the water receptor sites of emulsified oil molecules creating a water-insoluble complex separating water from oil, driller's mud, dyes, inks and fatty acids etc.

  •  Halogen Complexing, as the metal ions bind themselves to chlorines in a chlorinated hydrocarbon molecule resulting in a large insoluble complex separating water from pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated PCBs, etc.

  • Bleaching by the oxygen ions produced in the reaction chamber oxidises dyes, cyanide'sbacteriaviruses, bio-hazards, etc. Electron flooding of electrodes forced ions to be formed to carry charge into the water, thereby eliminating the polar effect of the water complex, allowing colloidal materials to precipitate and the current controlled ion transport between the electrodes creates an osmotic pressure that typically ruptures bacteria, cysts, and viruses.

  • Oxidation Reduction reactions are forced to their natural end point within the reaction tank       which speeds up the natural process of nature that occurs in wet chemistry, where concentration gradients and Solubility Products (KsP) are the chief determinants to enable reactions to reach stoichiometric completion.

  • Electrocoagulation Induced pH swings toward neutral.

 

System Capabilities

  • Removes heavy metals as oxides that pass TCLP

  • Removes suspended and colloidal solids

  • Breaks oil emulsion in water

  • Removes odour

  • Removes fats oils and grease

  • Removes complex organics

  • Destroys and removes bacteria, viruses and cysts

  • Processes multiple contaminants

 

Key benefits

  • Capital cost significantly less than alternative technologies

  • Operating cost significantly less than alternative technologies

  • Low to zero external power requirements

  • No chemicals

  • Metal oxide formation passing TCLP

  • Low maintenance

  • minimal operator intervention

  • Handles a wide variation in waste stream

  • Consistent and reliable results

  • Sludge minimisation

  • Treats multiple contaminants

  • Removes Odour

 

Advantages

 

  • EC requires simple equipment and is easy to operate with sufficient operational latitude to handle most problems encountered on running.

  • Wastewater treated by EC gives palatable, clear, colourless and odourless water.

  • Sludge formed by EC tends to be readily settable and easy to de-water, compared to     conventional alum or ferric hydroxide sludge's, because the mainly metallic oxides/hydroxides       have no residual charge.

  • Flocs formed by EC are similar to chemical floc, except that EC floc tends to be much larger, contains less bound water, is acid-resistant and more stable, and therefore, can be separated        faster by filtration.

  • EC can produce effluent with less TDS content as compared with chemical treatments, particularly if the metal ions can be precipitated as either hydroxides or carbonates (such as magnesium and calcium. EC generally has little if any impact on sodium and potassium ions in solution.

  • The EC process has the advantage of removing the smallest colloidal particles, because the applied electric field neutralises any residual charge, thereby facilitating the coagulation.

  • The EC process generally avoids excessive use of chemicals and so there is reduced requirement to neutralise excess chemicals and less possibility of secondary pollution caused by chemical substances added at high concentration as when chemical coagulation of wastewater is used.

  • The gas bubbles produced during electrolysis can conveniently carry the pollutant components to the top of the solution where it can be more easily concentrated, collected and removed by a motorised skimmer.

  • Due to the excellent EC removal of suspended solids and the simplicity of the EC operation, tests conducted for the U.S. Office of Naval Research concluded that the most promising application of EC in a membrane system was found to be as pre-treatment to a multi-membrane system of UF/RO or micro-filtration/reverse osmosis (MF/RO). In this function the EC provides protection of the low-pressure membrane that is more general than that provided by chemical coagulation and more effective. EC is very effective at removing a number of membrane fouling species (such as silica, alkaline earth metal hydroxides and transition group metals) as well as removing many species that chemical coagulation alone cannot remove. 

 

The common electrode stack designs all have inherent issues inhibiting their usefulness with waste water, our patent delivers a new version of electrocoagulation treatment, capable of dealing with high levels of suspended solids in the waste stream using the technological improvements itemised on the following chart. 

 

Competition

Electrocoagulation has the potential to displace many other treatments, this is best displayed in the following chart where the coverage and typical field of operation is made obvious.

technological improvements chart